The International Seminar on Neuroscience and Education is specially addressed to families, professors, psychologists, educators and professionals working in the teaching field. The event will feature the participation of leading experts in the field of education and neuroscience who will analyze the fundamentals of human development from birth to adulthood.
The ISNE thematic areas are as follows:
|13th and 14th of May 2022
|FRIDAY, May 13
|Reception and accreditations
Epigenetics, Environment and Brain: Learning and Unlearning
|Manel Esteller, Ph.D.
Successful aging: the influence of the life cycle on the aged brain and behavior model in young people
|David Bartres-Faz, Ph.D
Cooking, Consciousness, Research
|Mr. Josep Roca
|Closing first day ISNE IV
|SATURDAY, May 14
Emotions and social cognition: implications and applications in Education
|Javier Tirapu, Ph.D.
Skills for the 21st century post COVID-19
|Facundo Manes, Ph.D
|Coffee-break / Stands visit
Epigenetics and adolescence: the environment importance in the brain construction and reconstruction
|David Bueno, Ph.D.
Moral and social development in the Montessori environment of Elementary level, an education for life
|Ms. Ana Camila Jiménez Borbolla
|Lunch / Stands visit
New technologies and social networks, and their impact on the development and learning of children and adolescents
|Rosa Casafont, Ph.D,
María López Juez, Ph.D.,
Álvaro Pascual-Leone, Ph.D. and
Facundo Manes, Ph.D
Mediator: Alicia Banderas
Early childhood education: From discovery to development of executive functions
|María López Juez, Ph.D.
Promoting a healthy brain from childhood to old age
|Álvaro Pascual-Leone, Ph.D.
|Closing Ceremony of ISNE IV
Dr. MANEL ESTELLER, Director, Josep Carreras Leukemia Research Institute (IJC)
He graduated in Medicine from the University of Barcelona, where he also obtained a doctorate in molecular genetics. Dr. Esteller was a postdoctoral fellow and research associate at Johns Hopkins, where he studied DNA methylation and human cancer. His work was instrumental in establishing promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes as a common feature of cancer.
From October 2001 to September 2008, Manel Esteller was the leader of the CNIO Cancer Epigenetics Laboratory, where his main area of research was alterations in DNA methylation, histone modifications and chromatin in the human cancer. From October 2008 to May 2019, Dr. Esteller has been the Director of the Cancer Epigenetics and Biology Program (PEBC) in Barcelona. Currently, he is Director of the Josep Carreras Leukemia Research Institute (IJC), Professor of Genetics at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Barcelona and ICREA Research Professor.
His current research is devoted to mapping the epigenome in health and disease, and developing new epigenetic drugs. The author of numerous highly cited peer-reviewed manuscripts in the biomedical sciences, he is also a member of numerous international scientific societies, editorial boards, and a reviewer for many journals and funding agencies. He has received prestigious recognition for his scientific achievements, including the World Health Summit Award, the Swiss Bridge Cancer Award, the Dr. Josef Steiner Cancer Research Award, the Rey Jaime I Award, and the Severo Ochoa Award for Biomedical Research.
David Bartrés-Faz is Professor of Medical Psychology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences and Researcher of the ICREA Academia program at the University of Barcelona. His field of study is cognitive aging and the promotion of brain health throughout life. He has completed pre- and post-doctoral stays at Harvard Medical School in the United States, and at the Institut National de la Santé et the Recherche Médicale (INSERM, France) where he has trained in neuroimaging techniques and non-invasive brain stimulation. He has been principal investigator of 7 consecutive projects of the National Plan, of two projects of the European Commission for the Center of the University of Barcelona, published more than 160 scientific articles and supervised 11 doctoral theses. Together with Prof. Alvaro Pascual-Leone, he is currently coordinator of the strategic line of brain health at the Institut Guttmann and leads the Barcelona Brain Health Initiative prospective longitudinal study.
Josep Roca Fontané trained at the Institut Escola d'Hostaleria i Turisme de Girona. His first contact with wine dates back to the cellar of his parents' inn, where he reportedly could fill up to six bottles at a time. He was eight years old, and in the dining room he liked to talk to customers. An intimate relationship was beginning to be forged with two great talents who would be recognized in the future: National Gastronomy Award for Best Maître de Sala (2004), National Gastronomy Award for Best Sommelier (2010), International Academy of Gastronomy Award for Best Sommelier (2005 and 2011) and the Gueridón de Oro Award for Best Maître de Sala (2013), among others.
Josep Roca is a "wine waiter", as he likes to call himself. According to specialized critics, he has achieved "an almost infinite associative suitability between dishes and wines". He is the master of pairing and ceremonies at the restaurant he runs together with his brothers, El Celler de Can Roca, three-starred and considered the best in the world by Restaurant Magazine in 2013 and 2015.
Javier Tirapu Ustárroz is a clinical psychologist and clinical neuropsychologist and performs his clinical work at the San Juan de Dios Clinic in Pamplona. He has given more than 600 conferences, presentations and outreach courses on neuroscience topics. He has more than 280 publications and 8 books related to neuropsychology. Likewise, he is a member of the scientific committee and reviewer of 10 scientific journals and Director of the neuropsychology area in a neurology journal. He is a professor in 15 Masters on neuropsychology and behavioral neurology in Spain and Latin America. He is co-director of the Master on neuropsychology at Pablo de Olavide University and the Master on Autism Spectrum Disorders. He is co-author of the consensus document on addictions and neuroscience of the Spanish Society of Drug Addiction. He appointed expert consultant for the dementia plan of the Generalitat de Catalunya. He is the national prize for Clinical Neuroscience awarded by the National Neuropsychology Consortium in 2012. His studies have preferably focused on the study of the neuropsychology of the prefrontal cortex and on aspects such as intelligence, consciousness, executive functions, emotions and the social brain. Throughout his professional career, he has been dedicated to the clinic both with patients with Neurological disorders (dementia, stroke, TBI, etc.) and mental disorders in adults and children (especially ADHD, ASD, Neurodevelopmental disorders).
Facundo Manes, an internationally recognized neuroscientist and neurologist, has a PhD in Sciences from Cambridge University and has dedicated a large part of his career to deciphering the secrets of the brain, an activity that he continues to carry out as a researcher at the National Council for Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET). He created and developed the Institute of Cognitive Neurology (INECO) and the Institute of Neurosciences of the Favaloro Foundation. He is a professor of neurology and cognitive neuroscience and a consultant to the Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit of the Medical Research Council at the University of Cambridge (England). Dr. Manes is also a renowned international speaker, author of 10 books and more than 250 scientific contributions published in the most prestigious journals in his specialty.
Doctor in Biology, director of the UB-EDU1st Neuroeducation Chair and professor and researcher of the Biomedical, Evolutionary and Developmental Genetics Section of the University of Barcelona. His professional and academic career has focused on developmental genetics and neuroscience, and their relationship to learning processes. He has also been a researcher at the University of Oxford and has spent time at other universities and research centers in Europe and the United States. He is the author of seventy scientific articles and twenty-three essay and popularization books, many of which are on neuroeducation. He collaborates in various media, where he has published more than 700 works. Advisor on neuroeducation issues of the International Bureau of Education of UNESCO. In 2010 he won the European Award for Scientific Dissemination, in 2018 the Teaching Award for his contribution to neuroeducation, in 2019 the Distinction from the Faculty of Doctors of the University of Barcelona and in 2021 the ASIRE award for the activities of the Neuroeducation Chair.
Ana Camila Jiménez Borbolla has been part of the Montessori community for more than 30 years when she attended the children's community for the first time. She continued her studies in Montessori until she was 15 years old. She received the AMI diploma for Childhood Assistants in Mexico City in 1999, the AMI workshop diploma in Italy in 2000 and the AMI diploma for Casa de Niños in Cuernavaca in 2013. She has a degree in Philosophy from the Autonomous State University of Morelos (UAEM). She worked for thirteen years as a primary school guide in the city of Cuernavaca. In 2013 she decided to change her career and began her career as a primary school guide trainer. She is currently an AMI Primary Trainer at the Montessori Institute of Mexico A.C. in the city of Cuernavaca, Mexico and in Beijing, China. She has taught 6-12 Guidance courses in Mexico, Spain, Portugal, China, the United States and England. She examines in international courses, gives workshops and conferences to parents and teachers and supervises schools. All this work is complemented by the experience of raising two Montessori daughters. She loves reading, knitting, dancing, watching movies, and doing crafts.
Dr. Rosa Casafont has a degree in Medicine and Surgery from the Autonomous University of Barcelona, a Master's Degree in Neurosciences from the University of Barcelona and a Master's Degree in Occupational Health from the University of Barcelona. He studied music at the Barcelona Conservatory of Music and studied PPD at the School of Business Administration, ESADE.
Since graduating, she practiced medical care, both in the hospital and in primary care, and later, and after his training in Neuroscience, he defined a method, the "Thabit Method" to work cognitive-emotional management and behavior map. This method has been his "professional framework" since then.
She is a writer and author of several books. For more than 18 years she has been a trainer and lecturer, initially in healthcare and later she expanded her work as a teacher in the world of education, both in the University and in public and private schools and social centers. He is a member of the first Chair in the world in Neuroeducation UB-EDU1st and is part of the teaching staff of different Masters and Postgraduate Degrees in Catalonia and in Spain.
As a health professional and committed to education, in his professional practice, she approaches Neuroscience applied to the different fields of activity, having the good fortune to exercise his vocation, medicine, and at the same time his passion, the Neuroscience.
Regarding her training, it has to be emphasized her PhD in Biological Sciences (Neurosciences program) from the Complutense University of Madrid and a specialization in Child Brain Development (IAHP, Philadelphia, USA), among others. She has been working with children with brain injury and learning disabilities for 30 years. She is also actively involved in the training of parents in the field of brain injury, university level and professionals who are already practicing. Since 2000, Dr. López is the Director of the center of Neurological Organization Neocortex. In this center, children with neurodevelopment problems, ranging from deep brain injuries to mild brain injuries, are attended. This neurodevelopment problems include: child brain paralysis, disorders in the autism spectrum, generalized developmental disorders, language problems, learning problems, attention deficit and/or hyperactivity disorders, and dyslexia, among othersIn the San Antonio Catholic University of Murcia (UCAM), she is Director of the Neurodevelopment chair and has participated in several teacher training activities. She has published three books and a series of children's stories about neuroscience and education addressed to parents and professionals.
Alicia Banderas Sierra, Psychologist graduated from the Autonomous University of Madrid, qualified as a General Health Psychologist, works in the field of psychotherapy, health, education and sexology.
She has been an associate professor at the Faculty of Social Sciences and Education at the Camilo José Cela University (UCJC).
Her professional activity is focused both on her private practice, conducting psychological therapy aimed at children, adolescents and adults, as well as on training and education activities, for more than 20 years.
She has elaborated, coordinated and intervened in projects of "Gender Violence", "Women with unshared family responsibilities", "Women and sexuality" for public Institutions.
She has coordinated and intervened in Health Education projects in institutes and schools, training students through affective-sexual education workshops, as well as advice on affective-sexual matters in "Young Consultation" in Health Centers and in Youth Houses, during Eight years.
She has written several books with Editorial Planeta: "Little tyrants", "Happy children", "Overstimulated children" and "Talk to them about screens and social networks".
She has presented and collaborated as a psychologist in the program 'School of Parents... in trouble' on TVE's La 2 for 3 years. Throughout more than 100 programs, she has provided solutions and practical advice in the face of conflicts between parents and children.
For two years she has collaborated weekly in the child psychology space of the program "Today, Madrid" on Cadena SER. She has participated in the project We Learn Together of BBVA and El PAÍS. She has been awarded by the Official College of Psychology of Madrid for her contribution to the dissemination of psychology in society through the media with several journalism awards.
She is dedicated to giving conferences and workshops on psychology and education to the general public and professionals (educators, teachers, health professionals, etc.).
Alvaro Pascual-Leone, M.D., Ph.D., is director of the Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and chief of the Division of Cognitive Neurology at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC). He is an associate dean for clinical and translational research and a professor of neurology at Harvard Medical School (HMS).
Dr. Pascual-Leone received both his M.D. and his Ph.D. in neurophysiology from Albert-Ludwigs University in Freiburg, Germany. Following an internship in medicine at Staedtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe in Germany and residency in internal medicine at Hospital Universitario de Valencia in Spain, Dr. Pascual-Leone completed a neurology residency at the University of Minnesota and then trained in clinical neurophysiology and human motor control at the University of Minnesota and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). After several years at the Cajal Institute of the Spanish Research Council, he joined BIDMC and HMS in 1997.
Dr. Pascual-Leone's research aims to understand the mechanisms that control brain plasticity across the lifespan to be able to modify them to produce optimal patient behavioral outcomes, prevent age related cognitive decline, reduce the risk for dementia, and minimize the impact of neurodevelopmental disorders. He is a world leader in the development, research, clinical application, and teaching of a noninvasive technology called Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). TMS uses magnetic fields to stimulate or suppress specific nerve cell activities, or pathways, in the brain. His research has provided evidence for the efficacy of TMS for the treatment of various neurologic and psychiatric conditions including epilepsy, stroke, Parkinson's disease, chronic pain, autism, and drug-resistant depression.
Through Harvard's Continuing Medical Education Program, Dr. Pascual-Leone and the Berenson-Allen Center offer the longest-running medical education course in the world in noninvasive brain stimulation: to date, he has helped to train more than 900 clinician-scientists from around the world. He also directs the Sidney R. Baer, Jr. Foundation Fellowship in the Clinical Neurosciences.
Dr. Pascual-Leone has authored more than 750 scientific papers as well as several books and is listed as the inventor on several patents. His work is highly regarded for its innovation and quality and is often cited. Thompson Reuters has designated Dr. Pascual-Leone a "most highly cited author" and his work ranks first for citations in the field of brain stimulation for the past 20 year period. Dr. Pascual-Leone has also been recognized as one of World's Most Influential Scientific Minds, and one of the world's top 15 neuroscience researchers. He is the director of the Football Players Health Study at Harvard University and the scientific director of the Barcelona Brain Health Initiative. Dr. Pascual-Leone was recognized with a Midcareer Investigator Award in Patient-Oriented Research (K24) from the NIH and has received various other distinctions, including the Daniel Federman Outstanding Clinical Educator Award from HMS. He has also been honored with many international award for both his research and teaching including the Ramon y Cajal Award from the International Neuropsychiatric Association, the Norman Geschwind Prize in Behavioral Neurology from the American Academy of Neurology, the Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel Research Award from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation in Germany, and the Jean-Louis Signoret Neuropsychology Prize from the Fondation Ipsen in France. He is an elected member of the Spanish Royal Academy of Science. In addition, he is a member of number of medical societies and holds leadership positions in many, including the American Neurological Association, Organization for Human Brain Mapping, and the American Academy of Neurology. His work also has wide general public appeal and outreach through dissemination in articles in the lay press including TIME Magazine, Newsweek, New Scientist, National Geographic, and television and radio documentaries that have been featured on Scientific American, 60 Minutes, CNN, the BBC and the Discovery Channel, and several books (e.g. Norman Doidge, The Brain That Changes Itself ; John E. Robison, Switched On). Most recently Dr. Pascual-Leone has co-authored with Alvaro Fernandez and David Bartres-Faz the book El Cerebro que Cura (Plataforma Editorial, 2019).
Epigenetics, the inheritance of gene expression and activity patterns that is not due to the strict sequence of DNA, saves us from the determinism of genetics. There are many epigenetic factors that control our genes such as chemical modifications that act as DNA switches. An example: there are monozygotic twins in which one develops a neurodegenerative disease early, while the other does not. How can you understand if both share the same alphabet in their DNA? Well, because they share the same letters in the genome, but the spelling is different, that is, the epigenetic marks are different. We find aberrant epigenetics in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and other dementias. In addition, mutations in epigenetic genes cause autism and diseases such as Rett Syndrome. Epigenetics can be modified by the environment and by drugs. Could you also rescue the idea that it is possible to inherit acquired characters (Neolamarckism)? If epigenetic marks occur in germ cells it is possible. In schizophrenia and bipolar disorder there are epigenetic changes as if there had been an erroneous reprogramming of that brain. And that organ in physiological conditions experiences the greatest epigenetic changes in childhood and adolescence, when we incorporate the maximum amount of information. Can we intervene externally? How does Epigenetics affect learning?
Advancing age entails an increased risk for the appearance of different types of diseases and conditions, including those that affect the brain. However, a not insignificant percentage of people manage to reach very advanced ages, maintaining full capacities, both at a cognitive level and in terms of mental health, and continue to be productive at a family and community level. Recent research, coming from neuroscience and psychiatry, indicates that this 'successful aging' reflects the product of the interrelationships between biological predispositions, psychological aspects of the person and exposure to environmental factors that have occurred throughout life, including the early stages of childhood and youth. In this context, the study and characterization of potentially modifiable factors, including psycho-affective functioning, social interaction, as well as those related to habits and lifestyles, which define the population defined as 'successful aging', is of special interest '. This knowledge, adapted to programs promoting recommendations, could serve as a basis for the optimization and maintenance of brain health throughout life in younger populations, subsequently also increasing the probability that they will age in a healthier way.
A culinary journey through the creative processes of Celler de Can Roca and the interpretation of the sensitive and sensory aspects of the world of cuisine.
Todo parece indicar que nos encaminamos a un modelo de híbrido en muchas áreas que combine lo presencial con las alternativas digitales, tomando lo mejor de ambos mundos.
El contexto nos obliga a superar el miedo a la "deshumanización" ya que solo sería un riesgo si pensáramos en reemplazar completamente las aulas con inteligencias artificiales o dispositivos.
Las capacidades humanas son y seguirán siendo irremplazables pero las tecnologías son una enorme ventana de oportunidades para aprender y compartir nuestro aprendizaje.
Resulta hoy más evidente que nunca la necesidad de mejorar la alfabetización digital de toda la población.
Estamos transitando una nueva revolución industrial, aún más arrolladora que las anteriores ya que no solo trasformará lo que hacemos sino lo que somos.
Se trata de la fusión de esferas entre lo físico, lo digital y lo biológico.
La combinación de esta nueva revolución industrial y el contexto post-pandemia acelerarán los cambios en las habilidades que son consideradas fundamentales para adaptarse a los cambios.
Esto nos plantea enormes desafíos a nivel educativo y laboral, especialmente para los jóvenes.
Necesitamos acompañarlos a adquirir habilidades para conseguir y desarrollarse en empleos que todavía no se han creado, ya que las nuevas tecnologías también generarán nuevas formas de trabajo.
Muchas de estas habilidades son ya imprescindibles en la actualidad mientras que otras van ganando terreno.
Este panorama no debe desalentarnos, sino más bien impulsarnos a pensar los cambios urgentes que necesitamos en los procesos de formación de las personas y las comunidades.
Por ejemplo, el conocimiento enciclopédico y las memorias prodigiosas dejarán lugar a nuevas habilidades ya que hoy la información está más disponible y accesible que nunca antes en la historia.
Por el contrario, los trabajos del futuro, para los que tenemos que prepararnos hoy sin más demora, valorarán nuestra resiliencia y nuestra capacidad de adaptarnos a contextos cambiantes junto con aquellas habilidades que nos hacen humanos, aquello que la tecnología no puede –y difícilmente pueda algún día- imitar o reemplazar y que nos permiten permiten aprender y funcionar en distintos escenarios.
Una de ellas es la capacidad de resolver problemas complejos, es decir, encontrar respuestas novedosas a situaciones difíciles.
En este mismo sentido, la creatividad humana será esencial y, por eso, los roles que la requieran no podrán ser fácilmente reemplazados.
La sensibilidad estética es una de estas: si bien la tecnología puede aportar mucho al mundo del arte, la emoción contenida en una obra literaria o musical no puede provenir más que de la experiencia humana.
Otra de las habilidades imprescindibles será la capacidad de pensar críticamente, de observar y reflexionar.
Además, poder tomar decisiones que tengan en cuenta las consecuencias a corto y a largo plazo de las acciones será sumamente valorado; así como la negociación, y con ella la flexibilidad cognitiva, es decir, la capacidad de adaptar nuestra conducta a escenarios cambiantes.
La intuición y el contacto entre las personas también será insustituible. Nuestro cerebro es un órgano social.
En ese sentido, las habilidades emocionales y sociales son esenciales para la supervivencia y para el bienestar, y estas no pueden ser trasladas a un robot ni a una computadora.
Las máquinas pueden ser "más inteligentes" que nosotros en muchos aspectos, pero nunca lo van a ser en habilidades como la compasión, en imaginar qué piensa el otro y en entender que ese otro piensa diferente a nosotros, en sentir la alegría o el dolor ajeno.
Por eso, la empatía, entender lo que los demás sienten y necesitan, continuará siendo una cualidad esencial.
La inteligencia colectiva, la capacidad de manejar equipos y de interactuar con otras personas, de comprender cómo se sienten y qué es lo que saben los demás, será fundamental para los trabajos del siglo XXI.
Por más información estadística que una máquina pueda procesar, es improbable que detecte líderes, lidie con personalidades complejas y ayude a crear vínculos entre los miembros de un equipo.
Por más exposición a pantallas que estemos experimentando, la compañía y el cuidado amoroso del prójimo seguirán siendo un deseo y una necesidad y aquellos con la capacidad de brindarlos serán personas sumamente valiosas.
En este mismo sentido, las maestras y los maestros serán irremplazables y tienen que ejercer cada vez más ese rol primordial que es el de inspirar, motivar y formar a las próximas generaciones no solo en estas habilidades necesarias sino también en los valores esenciales para vivir en sociedad.
Las computadoras no podrán sustituir el valor del vínculo y la interacción entre quienes aprenden y quienes enseñan porque existe un componente social y emocional muy fuerte ligado a cómo procesamos la información, a cómo memorizamos, a cómo aprendemos.
La transformación educativa necesita de estilos de enseñanza dinámicos y flexibles, que se ajusten a las necesidades y desafíos presentes y futuros.
En un mundo basado en el conocimiento necesitamos prepararnos en las habilidades cognitivas para el siglo XXI.
Adolescence is a key, inevitable and essential stage of life. In it, the brain changes and reorganizes itself to leave behind the typical behaviours of childhood and acquire those of youth and adulthood. This process is influenced by the experiences lived during childhood, among which not only the hazards of life stand out, but also the parenting style. And, of course, the environment surrounding the adolescent also influences: social and cultural, family and educational. An environment of trust and emotional support does not generate the same type of personality as an environment of loneliness and rejection, to put two opposite extremes. All this influences, but does not determine, the neural connections that are established, which will allow the generation and management of the individual's behaviour. And it also conditions the establishment of epigenetic marks in brain-acting genes, which with their function will contribute to the establishment of neuronal connections and the functioning of neurons and neurotransmitters. This conference will address the issue of adolescence from this dual perspective: neuroplasticity and epigenetics. The influence of childhood will be discussed, and to what extent maladaptive attitudes, which may be harmful to the individual or his environment, can be redirected.
Social development in the primary school environment is aimed at the common good of all children and adults who participate in it. One individual's freedom ends when the other's freedom begins. In Montessori we speak of freedom responsibly as they are two forces that coexist and complement each other.
Moral development is born in the primary stage when the child begins to see the actions of others and his own under the lens of morality; is it fair or unfair? Is it true or false? At this stage of Elementary School, the children together set the boundaries of the classroom and also establish the consequences.
During the first years of a child's life, basic neurological tools are developed, which are related to sensory processing, motor development, cognitive development and executive functions. All these processes mature the central nervous system, in a constant dialogue between structure and function. These tools are used in all contexts throughout the child's academic journey, as well as in each person's adulthood. Among the various functions that are developed, we are going to deal with language and executive functions, and the relationship that exists between them. This is a back and forth relationship, which allows them to influence each other. In the current context, we find an increase of children who present a delay in the process of language development and we wonder what we can do to improve these processes. Reflecting on the following questions will help us to help them: How does language development influence the performance of executive functions? What happens to children with language development problems? Is this related to those students with specific learning difficulties?
Thanks to advances in medicine and public health, we are living longer and longer. However, more years of life are currently largely associated with more years of disability, not more years of health and well-being. Brain disorders are the leading cause of disability throughout life, greater than disability from cancer or cardiovascular disease combined.
The current challenge is to reduce the impact of brain alterations and the disabilities they cause. According to data from the World Health Organization, one in four people develops a neurological or psychiatric disorder throughout their lives, and these do not only affect the elderly. Anxiety, stress, addiction, depression and mental health disorders represent a growing burden for youth and adolescents.
Treating neurological and psychiatric diseases is a necessary strategy, but it is not sufficient. It is essential to maintain brain health throughout life, making the brain more resistant to changes or diseases that may appear. This means understanding that human life must be considered as a continuous process of development in which certain capacities are gained and others are lost, and where it is possible to promote resilience and brain reserve. In addition, the brain monitors and promotes the health of the body, and a healthy brain is essential for general health and well-being. The brain must therefore be the #1 target for health.
The focus on promoting brain health represents a paradigm shift, and requires a rethink from public health, health policies, education, and the habits and lifestyles of each person. Recent advances in neuroscience make it possible to inform and recommend an approach guided by scientific evidence. A healthy brain is a brain with the appropriate plasticity mechanisms, and the identification and modulation of space-time patterns of brain activity offers a personalized and transformative therapeutic approach.